• Welcome to the online home of the Oman Medical Journal offering free access and publishing to all authors and researchers 

    Welcome from the Editor-in-Chief

     
    Ibrahim Al-Zakwani, BSc, MSc, MS, PhD

    Welcome to the home of the Oman Medical Journal. The OMJ was established in 1984 and has been published under the Oman Medical Specialty Board since 2007. Initially, we started with one issue a year, which later increased to four and then to six in 2011. We currently publish over 100 articles a year covering all aspects of medicine and healthcare. These are selected by our committed and multi-disciplinary Editorial Board.

    We take a no barriers approach to publishing and are proud to offer the journal free to all those who wish to read it and charge no publication fees to authors/researchers. We publish a wide range of articles, including original research, case reports, and preliminary studies. We also publish editorials and letters intended to inform and spark debate about key medical issues. We do this to complement OMSB’s mission to provide quality healthcare through quality medical education. As part of this commitment, we are listed and indexed in over 35 databases, and this number continues to grow.

    We have added some exciting new features to this website. We now offer our authors and readers the opportunity to access articles before they are published in print with our Ahead-of-Print facility.  

    On behalf of the entire OMJ team, thank you for visiting the online home of the OMJ. We hope you will find this site to be a helpful resource. Please do not hesitate to contact us with any questions, concerns, or comments you have.

    Ibrahim Al-Zakwani

    Articles and Issues

     

    Most Viewed Articles

    The most viewed articles from the OMJ.
    Volume 34, Issue 1 January 2019
    Gender Differences and Obesity Influence on Pulmonary Function Parameters

    Rahimah Zakaria, Noraini Harif, Badriya Al-Rahbi, Che Badariah Abdul Aziz, Asma Hayati Ahmad

    Objectives: Overweight and obesity are known to cause various patterns of alteration to the pulmonary function test (PFT) parameters. We sought to investigate gender differences in PFT parameters and examine the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and PFT parameters. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of 126 patients referred for a PFT by various medical specialties between January and December 2015. PFT was measured using spirometry, and BMI was calculated using Quetelet’s index. Results: Female patients exhibited lower mean values for all PFT parameters compared to male patients. The forced vital capacity (FVC)% predicted was less than 80% for all patients while the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)/FVC was higher with increased BMI. BMI was positively correlated with peak expiratory flow in all patients, and with FEV1/FVC ratio in males but not in females. Conclusions: In our studied population, males exhibited higher mean values of PFT parameters than females. Increased BMI may be associated with a restrictive pattern on spirometry.

    Keywords: Body Mass Index; Pulmonary Function Test; Gender.

    Article history:

    Volume 34, Issue 1 January 2019
    Impact of Blood Transfusion on Troponin I Levels and Outcomes after Cardiac Surgery: A Cohort Study

    Arwa Z. Al-Riyami, Murtadha Al-Khabori, Balan Baskaran, Hatim Al-Lawati, Mirdavron Mukaddirov, Hilal A. Al-Sabti

    Objectives: Increased cardiac troponin I (TI) has been suggested to be a sensitive indicator of intraoperative myocardial injury. We investigated the association of transfusion on TI levels post-surgery and outcomes in patients undergoing elective cardiac surgeries. Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of 542 patients. Patients were divided into two groups based on TI levels at 24 hours (TI24) (> 6.5 µg/L vs. ≤ 6.5 µg/L). The impact of transfusion on TI levels was estimated using logistic regression and adjusted for using a multivariable model that included aortic cross-clamp time and preoperative ejection fraction. The effect of TI on the clinical outcomes was examined. Results: Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion was found to be associated with high TI levels (odds ratio (OR) = 2.33, p = 0.007, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.30–4.30). A trend was observed when aortic cross-clamp time and preoperative ejection fraction were adjusted for (OR = 2.06, p = 0.080, 95% CI: 0.90–4.70). An association was found between aortic cross-clamp time and high TI levels in the multivariable model (OR = 1.01, p = 0.028, 95% CI: 1.00–1.02). Elevated TI levels was associated with higher mortality (OR = 4.15, p = 0.017, 95% CI: 1.29–13.08), renal failure (OR = 2.99, p = 0.004, 95% CI: 1.41–6.32), and increased length of stay in-hospital (OR = 4.50, p = 0.020, 95% CI: 0.69–8.30). Conclusions: RBC transfusion is associated with increased TI24 post-cardiac surgery and worse outcomes, albeit a confounding effect cannot be excluded. Larger studies are required to confirm these findings.

    Keywords: Blood Transfusion; Troponin; Cardiac Surgery.

    Article history:

    Volume 34, Issue 1 January 2019
    Scorpion Sting Management at Tertiary and Secondary Care Emergency Departments

    Suad Al Abri, Munira Al Rumhi, Ghaitha Al Mahruqi, Ali Salih Shakir

    Objectives: We sought to review the management of scorpion stings in tertiary and secondary care emergency departments in Oman and determine physician’s knowledge of management protocols. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of all scorpion stings cases seen in Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH) emergency department (ED) from March 2016 to July 2017. Additionally, we conducted a survey of ED physicians regarding their management of scorpion stings in three different EDs including SQUH. Results: The total number of scorpion stings seen at SQUH during the study period was 128. Localized pain was seen in 97.7% (n = 125), swelling in 14.8% (n = 19), and local redness in 7.0% (n = 9) of patients. Around 13.0% (n = 17) of patients were found to have systemic symptoms with tachycardia being the most common. Bedside clotting test was done for 11.7% (n = 15) of patients. The most commonly used treatment was local anesthesia (54.7%, n = 70). No patient received scorpion antivenom. In the 89 surveyed physicians the main management method used was analgesia (88.8%, n = 71) followed by local anesthesia (81.1%, n = 65). Most physicians (80.0%, n = 64) believed that local anesthesia was the most effective management. However, 32.5% (n = 26) ordered a whole blood bedside clotting test, 69.2% (n = 18) of which were junior doctors. Conclusions: Most scorpion sting cases managed in SQUH had local symptoms. Tachycardia was the most common systemic manifestation. Bedside clotting test was not commonly ordered and mainly requested by junior doctors. Local anesthesia infiltration is the recommended management for scorpion sting. Analgesia was the main management followed by local anesthesia.

    Keywords: Scorpion Stings; Local Anesthesia; Blood Tests; Antivenoms.

    Article history:

    Volume 34, Issue 1 January 2019
    Rare Association of Leukocytoclastic Vasculitis in Visceral Leishmaniaisis

    Bharath A. Chhabria, Ram V. Nampoothiri, Sweta Rajpal, Kirti Gupta, Sanjay Jain

    A 30-year-old man presented with fever, hepatosplenomegaly, and a rash over his lower limbs (palpable purpura). Evaluation revealed pancytopenia and hypergammaglobulinemia. A subsequent bone marrow examination and serology confirmed visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar), while the biopsy of skin lesion suggested leukocytoclastic vasculitis. No alternate cause of vasculitis was forthcoming, and the patient was treated with conventional amphotericin B for 14 days after which resolution of symptoms (including the rash) was noted. Cutaneous vasculitis is an extremely rare complication following visceral leishmaniasis with no known cases reported thus far. Hence, a high index of suspicion is warranted in achieving timely diagnosis and initiation of appropriate therapy.

    Keywords: Leishmaniasis, Visceral; Vasculitis, Leukocytoclastic, Cutaneous.

    Article history:

    Volume 34, Issue 1 January 2019
    Chikungunya Masquerading as Acute Rheumatism in an Omani Traveler

    Mohammed Al Amin, Shadin Ibrahim, Abdullah Balkhair, Ibrahim Al Busaidi, Zied Gaifer, Hashim Ba Taher

    Chikungunya is a mosquito-borne viral disease. It typically presents as an acute febrile illness associated with a varying degree of arthralgia and musculoskeletal sequelae. Cases of chikungunya have been reported from more than 40 countries in several continents. Chikungunya is often reported in travelers returning to non-endemic/epidemic countries. With increasing international travel, it is vital that clinicians in non-endemic areas are made aware of this rapidly spreading infection. Increasing international travel (for social, leisure, and business) between Oman and several chikungunya endemic countries including Pakistan may facilitate the introduction of chikungunya to Oman. We report the first imported case of chikungunya in an Omani traveler with a link to the current outbreak in Pakistan.

    Keywords: Chikungunya Virus; Arthralgia; Rheumatism; Oman; Pakistan; Epidemics.

    Article history:

    Volume 34, Issue 1 January 2019
    Dissecting Aneurysm of the Internal Carotid Artery as a Complication of Facial Bone Trauma

    Sami Tahir Al Kindi, Abdulaziz Bakathir, Faisal Al Azri, Khalifa Al Wahaibi

    The involvement of the internal carotid artery in dissecting aneurysm is rarely reported in the literature and may occur as a complication of trauma, surgery, and other medical conditions. We report a case of a 22-year-old male who was involved in a motor vehicle accident with associated multiple orthopedic and maxillofacial fractures. During surgical management, the patient was incidentally diagnosed with a dissecting aneurysm involving the right internal carotid artery.

    Keywords: Carotid Artery, Internal; Dissecting Aneurysm; Facial Bones; Case Report; Oman.

    Article history:

    Volume 34, Issue 1 January 2019
    What Could This Thoracic Mass Be?

    Kaarthigeyan Kalaniti, Inez Oliveira

    Article history:

    Volume 34, Issue 1 January 2019
    Evaluation of FTO rs9939609 and MC4R rs17782313 Polymorphisms as Prognostic Biomarkers of Obesity: A Population-based Cross-sectional Study

    Mina Mozafarizadeh, Mohsen Mohammadi, Soha Sadeghi, Morteza Hadizadeh, Tayebe Talebzade, Massoud Houshmand

    Objectives: Obesity is a significant risk factor for a number of chronic diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. Obesity usually results from a combination of causes and contributing factors, including genetics and lifestyle choices. Many studies have shown an association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) and the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) genes with body mass index (BMI). Therefore, recognizing the main genes and their relevant genetic variants will aid prediction of obesity risk. The aim of our study was to investigate the frequency of rs9939609 and rs17782313 polymorphisms in FTO and MC4R genes in an Iranian population. Methods: We enrolled 130 obese patients and 83 healthy weight controls and calculated their BMI. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood and the frequency of rs9939609 and rs17782313 polymorphisms in FTO and MC4R genes was determined using the tetra-primer amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction (ARMS-PCR). Results: Significant associations were found between FTO rs9939609 and BMI. Where homozygous risk allele carriers (A-A) have significant higher odds ratio (OR) of being obese than individuals with normal BMI (OR = 6.927, p < 0.005, 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.48–13.78). No significant correlation between MC4R rs17782313 and obesity were observed when compared to healthy weight individuals. Although subjects with C-C genotype had higher odds of obesity (OR = 1.889, p = 0.077, 95% CI: 0.92–3.84). Conclusions: This study shows a relationship between FTO polymorphism and increased BMI, therefore, SNP in the FTO gene influence changes in BMI and can be considered a prognostic marker of obesity risk.

    Keywords: Genetic Polymorphism; Obesity; FTO Protein, Human; Melanocortin-4 Receptor.

    Article history:

    Volume 34, Issue 1 January 2019
    Nasopharyngeal Mantle Cell Lymphoma: An Extremely Rare Entity

    Mark Paul, Najihah Hanim Asmi, Eshamsol Kamar Omar, Suhaila Abdullah, Irfan Mohamad

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a rare, aggressive subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma with a poor prognosis and high recurrence rate. It seldom affects the Waldeyer’s ring let alone the nasopharynx. Patients usually present at late stages of the disease leading to poor failure-free and overall survival rates. Intensive chemotherapy regimes and autologous stem cell transplantation have reported increased survival rates. We report a relapsed case of nasopharyngeal MCL, which previously occurred in the gastrointestinal tract. The patient had undergone a hemicolectomy for colon intussusception secondary to the intraluminal lymphoma mass. He was unable to complete the treatment regime for MCL due to the adverse side effects. Oropharyngeal mass was discovered during routine outpatient follow-up, which was confirmed as nasopharyngeal MCL. We discuss the prognosis, disease progression, and possible treatments.

    Keywords: Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms; Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin; Lymphoma, Mantle-Cell.

    Article history:

    For Authors

    The Oman Medical Journal accepts manuscript submissions through an external website, Editorial Manager.  

    The Journal has specific instructions and guidelines for submitting articles. Please read and review them carefully. Articles that are not submitted in accordance with our instructions and guidelines are more likely to be rejected.

    About OMJ

     
    Aims and scope
    Oman Medical Journal is an Open Access International Journal, which intends to engage and inform doctors, researchers and other health professionals by publishing a wide range of peer-reviewed articles. Our background is solidly grounded in publishing a high degree of articles covering all aspects of medicine.
    Information for subscribers
    Oman Medical Journal is published six times a year by Oman Medical Specialty Board. It is distributed free to all medical doctors and allied health professionals in various institutions locally and internationally.

    Charges: There is no charges for submission, publication, and subscription.
    Authorship criteria
    Each author must contribute a significant segment and should take responsibility for the content and authenticity of the work as a whole. Authors must complete an Authorship form clearly stating their responsibilities, contribution and financial sources. Authors must supply an email address as all correspondence will be by email.
    Abstracting and indexing services
    The journal is listed in PubMed and PubMed Central, and indexed in Index Medicus for the Eastern Mediterranean Region, Google Scholar, CrossRef, Index Copernicus, CINAHL, DOAJ, Global Health, Academic OneFile, Academic Science in Context, Academic Journals Database, CAB Abstracts, CABI Publishing, Chemical Abstracts, Cornell University Library, EBSCO Publishing Electronic Database, Embase, Electronic Journals Library (EZB), Expanded Academic ASAP, Genamics JournalSeek, Gale and Open J-Gate, GFMER, Health Reference Center, ICMJE, Newjour, SCIRUS, SCImago Journal & Country Rank, Scopus, Summon by Serial Solution, The John Rylands Library, UlrichsWeb Directory.

    Ethical considerations
    In all experiments and studies on humans or animals, authors must state whether formal approval from an Institutional Review Board or Ethics Committee was obtained in the Methods section of the manuscript. In the absence of such committee, the Declaration of Helsinki guidelines must be followed and be clearly stated. All studies on human subjects must include a statement that the subjects gave informed consent. Patient anonymity should be preserved. Photographs need to be cropped to prevent human subjects being recognized. Experiments involving animals must be demonstrated to be ethically acceptable and should conform to national guidelines for animal usage in research.
    Copyright and photocopying
    Open access agreement: Published manuscripts become the permanent property of Oman Medical Specialty Board. This open access journal is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License (CC-BY-NC), permitting non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
    Editor-in-Chief
    Assoc.Prof. Ibrahim Al-Zakwani, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman
    Associate Editors

    Dr. Abdulaziz Al-Mahrezi, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman

    Dr. Murtadha Al-Khabori, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman

    Dr. Abdulhakeem Al-Rawahi, Oman Medical Speciality Board, Oman

    Statistics Editor
    Dr. Abdullah Al-Maniri, Oman Medical Speciality Board, Oman
    Editorial Board Members

    Prof. Samir Al-Adawi, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman

    Prof. Yasser Wali, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman

    Assoc.Prof. Abdullah Al-Mujaini, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman

    Dr. Adhra Al-Maawali, Ministry of Health, Oman

    Dr. Ahmed Al-Hashmi, Al-Nahdha Hospital, Oman

    Dr. Ahmed Al-Jahwari, Armed Forces Hospital, Oman

    Dr. Ahmed Al-Waily, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman

    Dr. Faryal Al-Lawati, Royal Hospital, Oman

    Dr. Hatem Al-Lawati, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman

    Dr. Khalid Al-Thuhli, Sultan Qaboos University, Oman

    Assoc.Prof. Khalid Al-Rasadi, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman

    Assoc.Prof. Khamis Al-Hashmi, Sultan Qaboos University, Oman

    Dr. Khulood Al-Maamari, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman

    Dr. Marwa Al-Riyami, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman

    Dr. Mujahid Al-Busaidi, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman

    Dr. Nihal Al-Riyami, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman

    Dr. Rahma Al-Kindi, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman

    Assoc.Prof. Rashid Al-Abri, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman

    Assoc.Prof. Saif Al-Yaarubi, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman

    Dr. Saud Al-Shabibi, Royal Hospital, Oman

    Editorial Office
    Medical Editor
    Dr. Ayshe Ismail
    Editorial Assistants
    Ms. Bishara Al-Mahruqi - 2418 1069
    Mrs. Jenny Manoguid - 2418 1059
    Mrs. Charie Ricafort - 2418 1082
    Mrs. Rabha Al-Abdulsalaam - 2418 1151
    Mrs. Iman Al-Busaidi - 2418 1150
    Technical Editor/Web Designer
    Mr. Amir Hussain
    Board Members
    Prof. A G Pusalkar, Lilaviti Hospital, India
    Prof. Dimitri Mikhailidis, University College London, United Kingdom
    Prof. Gordon Ferns, University of Surrey, United Kingdom
    Prof. Kichu Nair, University of New Castle, Australia
    Prof. Thomas Walsh, Yale University, United States
    Prof. Walter Rosser, Queens University, Canada
    Prof. Dirk Deleu, Weil Cornell Medical College, Qatar
    Dr. Amy Young, Baylor College of Medicine, United States
    Dr. Bassem Saab, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Lebanon
    Dr. Celia Rodd, McGill University, Canada
    Dr. Helen Batty, University of Toronto, Canada
    Dr. Kenneth Mattox, Baylor College of Medicine, United States
    Dr. Khalid Al-Jabri, Al Mufraq Hospital, United Arab Emirates
    Dr. Mahfooz Farooqi, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
    Dr. Mary-Ann Fitzcharles, McGill University, Canada
    Dr. Michael Shevell, McGill University, Canada
    Dr. Murtada Shabrawi, Cairo University, Egypt
    Dr. Mustafa Afifi, Jumeira University, Dubai, UAE
    Dr. Thomas Harle, Emeritus at Wake Forest University Medical School, United State
    The OMJ expects that the articles it publishes will not have been published or released elsewhere before they are published in the OMJ. This allows time for the independent peer review of scientific findings before it is available to the public and protects the originality of content. Authors should also not release the details of their findings to the mass media before their work can is peer reviewed and published.
    All articles are immediately available for free online at omjournal.org.
    The OMJ uses a peer-review process to evaluate manuscripts for scientific accuracy, novelty, and importance. The careful editing process often requires extensive revisions and assures detailed checking for accuracy. Authors will be responsible for checking the accuracy of the final edit.

    All submitted manuscripts are read by the Editor-in-chief and at least one other board member. Only those papers that seem most likely to meet our editorial criteria are sent for formal review. Those papers judged by the Board Members to be of insufficient general interest or otherwise inappropriate are rejected without external review.

    Manuscripts judged to be of potential interest to our readership are sent for formal review, typically to two or three reviewers. The editors then make a decision based on the reviewers' advice, from several possibilities:

    • Accept for publication without alteration.
    • Accept after revision/extensive revision. Authors are invited to revise their manuscript to address specific concerns before a final decision is reached.
    • Reject, but indicate to the authors that further work might justify a resubmission.
    • Reject outright, typically on grounds of relevance, lack of novelty, or major technical and/or interpretational problems.
    Reviewers are welcome to recommend a particular course of action, but they will be considered along with other reviewers who may have different technical expertise and/or views. Typically, the Board Members make decisions based on conflicting advice and their understanding of the research. It can be the case that we do not always follow the recommendations of reviewers. We do not send details of the final decision to reviewers.

    In cases where the authors have been asked to revise their manuscript, we may return to reviewers for a second review. When reviewers agree to assess a paper, we consider this commitment to review subsequent revisions.

    We do not edit reviewers' reports; any comments that were intended for the authors are transmitted. Therefore, we asked that reviewers remain respectful in their comments avoiding statements that may cause needless offense.
    Manuscripts will be edited for brevity, clarity, grammar, spelling, and style. When the editing is extensive, with the possibility of altered meaning, queries are sent to the corresponding author by email. When a manuscript has been edited and prepared for publication, these will be sent to the author along with any final queries from the Copy Editor. Authors are expected to check the proof carefully, paying particular attention to the accuracy of equations, tables, illustrations, other numerical matter and references (which have been corrected for style but not checked for accuracy, which remains the responsibility of the author), and answer any queries. With page proofs, we request that the authors make the fewest possible alterations other than corrections of errors, and wherever a change is essential, only substituting as few words as possible occupying an approximately equal amount of space. If no corrections are received, the Editors reserve the right to correct the proof themselves. Equally, the Editors reserve the right to dismiss any changes that do not follow OMJ style or introduce errors in language. Corrections are generally not made to a manuscript once it has been published unless there is a significant error.
    The Editorial Board is a group of individuals committed to helping the OMJ produce an excellent multidisciplinary scientific publication of the highest quality. The publisher/editor-in-chief appoint editorial Board members. The editorial board is made up of an interdisciplinary mix from a wide range of disciplines. The main responsibilities of editorial board members are to provide strategic and operational advice (unsolicited, as well as in editorial board meetings) and to guide papers in their area of expertise through the peer-review process.

    Any manuscript submitted by an Editorial Board member will be treated in the same manner as any other manuscripts with both the Editorial Board member and reviewers blinded to one another in the review process.
    Material submitted to the OMJ journals must not be discussed with the media, except in the case of accepted contributions, which can be discussed with the media only once published. Authors that are contacted by the media about any OMJ should ask that the OMJ is credited in any news stories.
    The OMJ Editorial Board and publication staff keep all information about a submitted manuscript confidential and limited to those involved in the evaluation, review and publication process. The OMJ used a double-blind review process so that authors’ names and affiliations are not revealed to reviewers nor are reviewers’ names revealed to authors. Only information on accepted articles is archived for future reference.
    It is the responsibility of every person listed as an author of an article published in OMJ to have contributed in a meaningful and identifiable way to the design, performance, analysis, and reporting of the work, and agree to be accountable for all aspects of the work. Authors must complete an authorship form clearly stating their responsibilities, contribution, and financial sources.

    According to the guidelines of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), as revised in 2013, authorship credit should be based on the following 4 criteria: 

    • substantial contributions to conception or design of the work, or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work; and
    • drafting of the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and
    • final approval of the version to be published; and
    • agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved. All those designated as authors should meet all four criteria for authorship, and all who meet the four criteria should be identified as authors. Those who do not meet all four criteria should be acknowledged.


    All authors (ie, the corresponding author and each coauthor) must read, complete, and submit an electronic Authorship Form with signed statements on Authorship Responsibility, Criteria, and Contributions and Confirmation of Reporting Conflicts of Interest and Funding.
    ©2019 All rights reserved to Oman Medical Journal. All articles published represent the opinions of the authors and do not reflect the official policy of the journal. This open access journal is distributed under the terms of Oman Medical Specialty Board, permitting non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Published manuscripts become the permanent property of Oman Medical Specialty Board and may not be published elsewhere.
    A conflict of interest may exist when an author (or the author’s institution or employer) has financial or personal relationships or affiliations that could influence (or bias) the author’s decisions, work, or manuscript. All authors are required to complete and submit the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest: This form will be requested after a manuscript has been submitted, but authors should also include conflict of interest disclosures in the Disclosure section of the manuscript. Authors are expected to provide detailed information about all relevant financial interests, activities, relationships, and affiliations. Peer-reviewers are also expected to declare any conflicts of interest as part of their review.
    For all manuscripts reporting data from studies involving human participants, formal review and approval, or formal review and waiver, by an appropriate institutional review board or ethics committee is required and should be described in the Methods section. Such studies must also be in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975 (revised in 2008). For investigations of humans, state in the Methods section the manner in which informed consent was obtained from the study participants (ie, oral or written) and whether participants received a stipend. Editors may request that authors provide documentation of the formal review and recommendation from the institutional review board or ethics committee responsible for oversight of the study.
    The OMJ uses the World Association of Medical Editors (WAME) definition of scientific misconduct as described below: 

    • Falsifying data: fabrication of data, selective reporting or omission, suppression or distortion of data. 
    • Plagiarism: using the published or unpublished language, ideas or thoughts of another writer without crediting the source and presenting them as one’s own. Plagiarism includes duplicate publication (publication of an article in more than one journal or in another language).
    • Authorship issues: exclusion of involved researchers or inclusion of researchers who have not contributed to the work or publication without permission from all authors. 
    • Violation of generally accepted research practice: including manipulating experiments/statistics to get biased results or improper reporting of results. 
    • Failure to follow legal requirements: violating local regulations and laws involving the use of funds, care of human subjects, investigational drugs, recombinant products, new devices or radioactive, biological or chemical materials.
    •  
    • Inappropriate behavior in cases of misconduct: including false accusations of misconduct; failure to report misconduct; not providing relevant information in a misconduct claim and retaliation against people claiming or investigating misconduct.


    All allegations of misconduct will be referred to the Editor-In-Chief. Authors will be contacted in writing with any concerns and asked to state their case and explain the circumstances. Until a decision about the manuscript is reached, work on the manuscript will be stopped. The Editor-in-Chief will make a final decision on the handling of the manuscript.

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